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西班牙语音系

作者:admin    文章来源:盐田区外国语学校    更新时间:2017-11-11

把大众拉丁的元音系统简化为5个元音-- a. e, i, o, u。 五个元音的发音都清楚明晰,不管是在元音是否是在重音位置。除了a以外,古典拉丁中的短元音都在西班牙文中经历了裂化, 如:

  porta->puerta

  herba->hierba

  古典拉丁文中的长元音并是重音位置上的e, o在西班牙文中都被i, u代替,而短元音并非重音位置的i,u在西班牙文中被e, o代替,如:

  feci->hice

  重音落在词末的音节上,或是倒数第二个音节上,或是倒数第三个音节上。这个重音是在拼写中表示出来的。同古典拉丁文相比较,西班牙文的重音表现出向有r这个音的音节上靠的现象:

  tenebrae->tinieblas

  古典拉丁文中的元音间的辅音p, t, c 在西班牙文中被浊化成b, d, g, 如:

  apotheca(th等于t,因为h不发音)->bodega

  元音间的d消失,如:

  cadere->caer

  元音间的g消失或者变成一个介音j, 写做y, 如:

  legere->leer

  reges->reyes

  而元音间的b被保留,但是倾向于和v一样发成爆破音,如:

  habere->haber

  古典拉丁文中的开首的f被一个不发任何音的h代替,如:

  facere->hacer

  辅音群ct, lt演变成ch (act成为ech), 如:

  octo->ocho

  multu->mucho

  lactua->lechuga.

  (注:这个现象就是上次我说的yod现象。辅音c和l被腭化,然后变成象j一样的发音,这样yod就有条件发生了。)

  辅音群cl, fl, pl 腭化变成ll, 如:

  clamo->llamo

  flama- >llama

  ploro->lloro

  元音辅音群ali, eli, ili, oli, uli演变成aj, ej, ij, oj, uj, 如:

  alium->ajo

  filius->hijo

  mulier->mujer

  辅音群lr, mr, nr被插入b或者d, 变成ldr, mbr, ndr, 如:

  venir+he->vendre

  注:这里b, d的插入是为了帮助发音,有了b, d的介入,更加容易发音。

  以s开首的的词被加上了一个e, 如:

  stare->estar

  以下是原文:

  SPANISH PHONOLOGY

  Spanish has simplified the Vulgar Latin vocal system to only 5 open vowels (as in Classic Latin) -- a. e, i, o, u -- that are pronounced clearly and without reduction in both stressed and unstressed positions. The vowels, that are short in Classic Latin, diphthongate when stressed in Spanish except for a, cf.:

  CL porta door -> Sp. puerta;

  CL herba grass -> Sp. hierba.

  The long stressed vowels e, o are replaced by i, u and the short unstressed vowels i, u -- by e, o, cf.:

  CL fêci (I) did -> Sp. hice.

  The accent may fall on the ultimate, penultimate or antepenultimate syllable. Its place is recognizable from orthography. As compared with the accent of Classical Latin, it shows a tendency to move towards a syllable containing -r, cf.:

  CL tenebrae darkness -> Sp. tinieblas.

  The Latin consonants p, t, c between vowels are voiced to b, d, g in Spanish, cf.:

  CL apotheca (th=t) store-room -> Sp. bodega.

  The intervocalic -d- disappears, cf.:

  CL cadere to fall -> Sp. caer

  and the intervocalic -g- may disappear or become a glide sound [j] written y, cf.

  CL legere to read -> Sp. leer

  CL reges kings -> Sp. reyes,

  while the intervocalic -b- is preserved, but tends to become aspirated as v, cf.

  CL habere to have -> Sp. haber.

  The initial f- is replaced by a mute h-, cf.

  CL facere to do -> Sp. hacer.

  The consonant clusters ct, lt are transformed to ch (act to ech), cf.:

  CL octo eight -> Sp. ocho,

  CL multu(m) much, many -> Sp. mucho,

  CL lactuca lettuce -> Sp. lechuga.

  The clusters cl, fl, pl are palatalized to ll, cf.:

  CL clamo (I) call -> Sp. llamo,

  CL flama flame -> Sp. llama,

  CL ploro (I) weep -> Sp. lloro.

  The clusters ali, eli, ili, oli, uli are transformed to aj, ej, ij, oj, uj, cf.:

  CL alium garlic -> Sp. ajo,

  CL filius son -> Sp. hijo,

  CL mulier woman -> Sp. mujer etc.

  The clusters lr, mr, nr are divided by epenthetic -b- or -d- and become ldr, mbr, ndr, as in:

  venir to come + he (I) have -> vendré (I) will come.

  The words beginning with s- followed by a consonant (s impure) receive a prothetic e-, cf.:

  CL stare to stand -> Sp. estar.